China is a country with an ancient
civilization. It has a long history
and brilliant culture. In which ways
can we learn about its history and
culture? The science of people
societies from the past;
we often get them under the land.
What does the word
“archaeology” remind you of?
Tools made of stones
A bronze tripod
The Ages of Man
Stone age Bronze Age Iron Age Atomic Age
Inscriptions on bones or tortoise shells
does it date from?
Terracotta warriors and horses
Which dynasty does it date from?
The powerful Qin Dynasty.
A painting on silk
A work of china
Tri-colored glazed pottery
The Ages of Man
1. The Stone Age (10,000—2,000 BC)
Food Housing Home decoration wild fruit , plants , meat , fish caves , tents , huts wall paintings, animal skins , animal bones, pottery (陶器）
tools made of stone, clay and animal bone, fishing nets
simple objects such as jewel made of animal teeth and bone
story telling, singing and dancing around the fire
2. The Bronze Age (2,000—250 BC)
Home decoration Tools
rice, vegetables, meat, fish, milk products wooden buildings painted walls, pots and containers made of clay or bronze, wooden furniture, woven mats stone, wood, pottery, bronze
Artefacts bronze objects, bones, stone objects, pottery and clay figures (人工制品） Entertainment story telling, singing and dancing, music with simple instruments, poetry, handicrafts
3. The Han Dynasty
fine foods of all varieties, wine and alcohol wooden buildings
painted walls, containers made of clay and bronze, wooden furniture, woven mats, silk, woolen cloth Tools all kinds of tools made of different metals, wood, glass, or stone Artefacts clay figures, statues, woven cloth of silk and other materials, jade, (人工制品） gold, written bamboo texts, pottery Entertainment song and poetry, music, hunting
4. The Tang Dynasty
Food a choice of fine foods and wines
wooden and stone buildings
painted walls, pots and vases made of porcelain（瓷器）, wooden stone and metal sculptures（雕塑）, furniture, woven mats and woolen cloth all kinds of tools made of different materials pottery, tools, jewel, paper, and silk materials, jade, gold and metal objects various forms of musical entertainment, reading, hunting, travel
Tools Artefacts (人工制品） Entertainment
The King of Stonehenge
英格兰东南部的历史名城索兹伯里附近，有一个小村庄名 叫阿姆斯伯里，村西的原野上有一座阅尽沧桑、雄视千古的 石柱群，这就是著名的古迹Stonehenge.这是一座由许多根 石柱围成的史前建筑。这些石柱排成圆形，最高的石柱高达 10米，它们的平均重量达26吨，这么重的家伙竟有不少是横 架在两根竖直的石柱上的！Stonehenge这个名字的前一半 Stone意为“石头”，后一半在现代英语词典中已查不到了， 据考证它来自古代英语，意思是“高高悬挂着”。想来它在 古代有一个形象的名字“高悬在天上的石头”。
A bird’s eye view
What truth or legend lies
in these massive stones?
artefact archaeologist grave pin
THE passage describes the finding of a man Bronze Age Britain, popularly from the early ____________in called_________________________. the King of Stonehenge After a description of the _______, finds the text gives possible explanations about what he looks like important to the history of and ______ why he is so ____________ Britain.
?He was 40 years old when he died. ?He spent his youth in central
?Everything found in the man’s grave was probably given to him for his use in
the next life.
Which objects were found in the grave of the king of Stonehenge?
a bow arrows tools a bone pin two gold earrings a cushion stone
two copper knives
Which materials were found ? gold
bone copper pottery
1. How many kinds of things were discovered in the grave of the King of Stonehenge? What are they?
Five. They are clothing, tools, weapons, pottery, and spare materials to make new tools.
2. Why is the discovery important?
1) His grave is the richest of any found that period. 2) He was buried 3 miles from Stonehenge at the time when the great stones were being brought to Salisbury to build it. 3) He may have had a hand in planning the monument or helping transport and pull up the stones. 4) He brought culture and new techniques from the Europe mainland to Britain.
Construction of Stonehenge is
A process of
blood, sweat, and tears.
Stonehenge – Forever a mystery
There is nothing quite like Stonehenge anywhere in the world and for 5000 years it has drawn visitors to it.
No one really knows how or why Stonehenge was built. These circles of giant stones were placed in a grassy field in southern England nearly 5,000 years ago. Some believe that the rocks served as enormous sundials (日晷仪). Others think that people used them for religious purposes. Over time, the landscape around Stonehenge underwent substantial change and development.
P77. 2 Examples of trade and cultural links
Country or part of Europe Material or object of trade
Spain Western France Europe Some remote places
Stones to build Stonehenge
Copper knife Gold jewellery
Talk about the inventions and kinds of science they must have had, based on the reading passage.
activity Travel to Scotland knowledge, science,inventions and tools needed
Roads, maps, geography,etc.
Construction of Stonehenge Hunting Trade with Europe
Making copper knives
Weapons, bows, arrows, etc. Maps, ships, languages, geography, markets
Skills, copper, model, etc.
1. On May 3, 2002, archaeologists in England found a grave of a man dating back to around 2300 BC. which dated back to around 2300 BC date back to = date from = go back to e.g. This church dates back to the 16th century. The family name goes back to Tang dynasty.
2. He was buried on his left side with his face to the north. 向左侧 介词on表示支撑 e.g. get down on one’s knees She was on her feet in no time. He was on his hands and knees searching for something. Can you stand on your head?
3. Buried with him were the tools of a hunter or a warrior. 倒装 课文中的其他倒装的例子：
4. Only a few centimeters from his head were two pots … 5. Next to them lay a cushion stone, upon which the man could work metal.
6. Archaeologists tend to believe that this man was a member of a powerful class that may well have organized the construction of Stonehenge. 成功地
tend to do sth. 倾向于…；往往…；易于…
e.g. People tend to believe women could do more housework. People tend to get fat as they grow older. Current English tends to be very informal.
7. It is not yet known how these were conveyed over a distance of 380 kilometers. 8. It is also a mystery how early man was able to construct Stonehenge without the use of modern construction machines and lorries. 9. It is possible that the King of Stonehenge was linked to the stones: he may have a hand in planning the monument, or in helping P165 transport and pull up the stones.
10. In terms of technical development, people were going from the Stone Age to the Bronze Age.
in terms of 就……而言；从……角度；根据 e.g. It is difficult to express it in terms of science. In terms of money we’re quite rich, but not in terms of happiness. in sb’s terms 表示“在……看来”
11. Iron came later, in what was called the Iron Age.
12. The King of Stonehenge came with the skills to make metal, and that would have given him a high status in the eyes of local people. = in one’s eyes 在某人看来
1. It 作引导词 形式主语 2. It 作代词 形式宾语
人称代词 指示代词 非人称代词 3. It 在强调句型中的用法
It + be + … + that / who + … 4. It引导的几个时间句型
1. 用作人称代词，代表前面提到的人或事物。 It’s 1) Who’s it? _________me. It 2) Look at the picture. _____is a picture of our school. 2. 用于代替指示代词this 和that。 ---Is this jacket yours? it ---Yes, ______is.
（补充）it vs. one, that：
it = the (that, this) + n. 特指，代替前文的某特定事物
one = a + n. 指前文的同类事物中不同的一个
that = the + n. 指与前文的属同一类，但不是同一个
1. ---- Why don’t we take a little break? ---- Didn’t we just have ______? A. it B. that C. one D. this 2. For most students, their teacher’s advice is more important than ______ of their parents. A. those B. that C. what D. which
3. 用以表示时间、距离、天气、气候、季节、 环境等。
1) It is half past eight now. time 2) It’s only half an hour’s walk from here to our school. distance weather 3) I hope that it will be fine tomorrow. 4) It has rained much this year. weather 5) It’s spring now. 6) It’s quiet here. season
4. 用作形式主语或形式宾语，代替后面的短语 或从句。
1) Instead of “to do” Subject It is important for us to learn English well. Subject It takes me an hour to finish the homework. I found it necessary to tell him about the matter. Object
2) Instead of “doing”
Subject It is no use quarrelling with him about it.
I think it no good talking to her. 3) Instead of “clause”
It doesn't matter whether he will come or not. Subject I think it necessary that we will attend the meeting. Object
（补充）可用it作形式主语的主语从句结构常见 的有： 1. It’s a pity/no wonder/a fact that-clause …
2. It’s true/possible/strange that-clause … 3. It’s said/reported/believed that-clause … 4. It seems/happens that-clause …
5. It doesn't matter wh-clause…
6. It makes no difference wh-clause…
（补充）it可以用在appreciate, enjoy, hate, like, love 等动词之后充当形式宾语接由when 或者if引导的宾语从句：
1. I like it when you sing. 2. I hate it when he lies. 3. I hate it when people talk with their mouths full. 4. I will appreciate it if you can help me.
5.用于强调句型中 It is/was+被强调部分+that/who+句子剩余部分 I met with him in the park last night.
? It was I who/that met with him in the … ? It was him whom/that I met with in the park last night. ? It was in the park that I met with him last … ? It was last night that I met with him in the park. ? I did meet with him in the park last night.
that I got home. ? It was at ten o’clock ______ when I got home. ? It was ten o’clock _______ that I was born. ? It was in the room _____ where I was born. ? This is the room _______
1) She didn't go to bed until her father came back. It was until her father came back that she didn't go to bed. It was not until her father came back that she went to bed. 2)Why does everyone think I’m narrowminded?
Why is it that everyone thinks I’m narrowminded?
1. It + be + 时间 + since-clause…
2. It + be + 时间 + before-clause…
3. It + be + (high/about)time + thatclause… 4. It / This / That + be + the first (second, third…) time + that-clause…
1. I like _____ in the autumn when the weather is clear and bright. A. this B. that C. it D. one 2. Does _____ matter if he can’t finish the job on time? A. This B. that C. he D. it 3. In which play is ______ your brother appear? A. that where B. this when C. it that D. it where 4. ______ the harder you work, the better result you’ll get. A. It’s believed that B. What we believed that C. It’s fact D. What the fact is
5. ---Have you written a letter to her ? --- No , but I’m going to write _____ tonight. A. it B. that C. those D. one 6. The teacher told the students _______. A. why to learn English important B. why was it important to learn English C. why it important to learn English D. why it was important to learn English 7. The TV sets made in China are much better than ______ in Japan. A. that B. those C. them D. it 8. ---I’m looking for a flat. ---Would you like _______ with _____ garden? A. it; the B. it; a C. one ; a D. one ;the
Of Chinese culture
Two archaeological finds:
Jinsha Village Sanxingdui
1. Important materials for the In southwest Sichuan Provice study of …. Ivory; jade; gold; bronze; stone; 2. Sichuan had trade links with animal bones; a gold mask; a Finds Yangtze, yellow River valley, …. bronze statue 3. Sichuan may have been the political and cultural center of Importance ancient Shu kingdom. Location
In 1929 (---2010)
Bronze, gold masks, bronze, jade, ivory, a bronze statue Palaces, tombs and workshops are expected.
Ninth wonder of the world
1. construction worker 建筑工人 2. The police arrived and closed the site. :some important place left from the past 3. a large quantity of … ＋可数 或者 不可数名词 4. The ivory and animal bones that were found will serve as important materials …
表示“供职，服役”。 e.g.：He served as an officer during the war. I serve as a teacher and an interpreter.
5. The Yangtze and Yellow River Valley
6. have trade links with …
e.g. People tend to link wealth to happiness. Police suspect there may be a link between the two murders.
7. dig up
e.g. Father dug up a coin in the garden.
8. Yan Kaizong accompanied his grandfather when he … accompany vt. 陪伴；陪同
e.g. She accompanied her friend to the concert.
I will accompany you as far as the station. 9. cover a vast area of about 12 square kilometers 10. The History Department of Sichuan University 四川大学历史系 11. Sichuan Archaeological Research 四川考古研究所 Institute
China is a country with an ancient